Absence of menstrual periods.
Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation at puberty:
the menstrual cycle never starts.
Secondary amenorrhea is defined as a condition whereby a woman's menstrual period stops due to an underlying medical cause.
Absence of ovulation.
A menstrual cycle in which ovulation does not occur.
Another word for menses or menstruation.
Fluid secreted by the cervix. Its main role is to assist sperm in living for several days and to help transport sperm to the fallopian tubes.
Opening into the uterus.
Hair-like projections inside the fallopian tubes that move the egg up the tubes into the uterus.
A yellow mass of cells that forms from the follicle that releases the egg at ovulation.
The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone that is important for preparing
the endometrium for implantation of the fertilized egg.
Delivery of a baby by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus. It is believed that Julius Caesar was born this way.
Pain during menstruation that occurs in the lower abdomen just before or during menstruation; menstrual cramps.
Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain occurring because of one's menstrual period and not as a result
of a disease. It results from the production of prostaglandins, which
are made by cells in the inner lining of the uterus. Prostaglandins make the uterine muscles
contract to help the uterus shed the endometrial lining that has built up during the menstrual cycle.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that is the result of an underlying medical condition or disease of the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries.
The pain appears similar to menstrual cramps, but often last longer than the menstrual period, or may occur at other times of the month when one is not menstruating.
A condition whereby endometrial tissue that should normally grow inside the uterus instead
abnormally grows outside the uterus, in the abdominal cavity and often on other reproductive organs such as on
the ovaries, fallopian tubes.
Mucous membrane tissue lining of the uterus. The endometrial lining grows thicker during the month and
is shed monthly during the menstrual period if pregnancy does not occur.
Female hormone produced by the ovaries that promote the growth and maintenance of the female reproductive system.
The fallopian tube transports the egg from the ovary to the uterus. There are
two fallopian tubes, one connecting to the right ovary, the other to the left ovary.
Generally, fertilization (joining of female egg with male sperm) takes place within the
Named after Gabriele Falloppio, a 16th-century Italian anatomist, who was the first person to accurately describe these uterine tubes.